with German Ground Personnel and Torpedo Trailers
The Luftwaffe relied heavily on bomb-armed aircraft in its concept of naval warfare. However, over time, the need for aircraft with torpedo armament became apparent, which made it possible to effectively perform missions to hit sea targets.
As of 1941, the German Air Force already had five torpedo squadrons, each with 12 aircraft according to the staffing table. From the beginning of 1942, front-line Ju-88 bombers of the A-4 modification, which had good maneuverability and fairly strong defensive weapons, were converted into torpedo-bearing versions.
The standard strike armament of these aircraft was F5b torpedoes. The weight of the warhead of such torpedoes reached 250 kg, and the range was up to 6000 meters (at a speed of 24 knots). In addition to “free hunting” for single ships, torpedo aircraft were also used against large, well-protected caravans, warship detachments, and amphibious assault forces.
Luftwaffe torpedo bombers could be based at airfields in Italy, Southern France, or Northern Norway. To train flight personnel and practice the tactics of using torpedo bombers, torpedo bomber training centers were established, one of which was located in Groseto, Italy.